Members of the Rho/Rac family can be grouped into 3 classes according to amino acid sequence similarities.
The first subfamily is composed of four Rac proteins (Rac-1, Rac-2, Rac-3 and RhoG). Some of these proteins promote the activation of protein kinases such as PAK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38MAPK. They are also involved in the activation of other independent pathways regulating membrane ruffling and cell proliferation.
The second subfamily, Rho, includes RhoA, RhoB, RhoC, RhoD, RhoE and TTF proteins. RhoA has been characterized extensively and shown to be involved in cell transforma- tion, formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions, and in the stimulation of protein kinases such as PKN and p160Rock
Finally, the third subfamily is composed of TC10 and the two isoforms of the Cdc42 protein. Cdc42 was shown to be involved in the activation of JNK, PAK and p38MAPK as well as in the formation of filopodia in the plasma membrane
Participates in complexes:
In compartment: Cytoplasm
Participates in reactions:
As Reactant or Product:
- GTP:RHOB@Cytoplasm → GDP:RHOB@Cytoplasm
- GDP:RHOB@Cytoplasm → GTP:RHOB@Cytoplasm
- GTP:RHOB:RhoB_cytoskeletal_effectors*@Cytoplasm → Cytoskeleton remodeling@Nucleus
- GTP:RHOB:RhoB_cytoskeletal_effectors*@Cytoplasm → Actin polymerization@Nucleus
- RhoA_B*@Cytoplasm → GTP:RHOB@Cytoplasm
- GTP:RHOB@Cytoplasm + RhoB_cytoskeletal_effectors*@Cytoplasm → GTP:RHOB:RhoB_cytoskeletal_effectors*@Cytoplasm