IGFfamily exhibits anti-apoptotic activity.
Three IGF1R-induced anti-apoptotic pathways:
1. IRS1-mediated pathway causing activation of PI3K and AKT(PKB) leading to BAD phosphorylation.
Unphosphorylated BAD, by binding to BCLXL and BCL2, neutralizes the protective effect of these 2 later proteins and promotes cell death.
Phosphorylated BAD is sequestered by 14-3-3 protein family and thus unable to bind BCL2 family hence can not promote cell death.
2. After autophosphorylation and thus activation, IGF1R binds to 14-3-3 protein family, leading to activation and translocation of c-Raf1 to the mitochondria where it phosphorylates BAD.
3. IGF1R specifically phosphorylates and inhibits ASK1 (MAP3K5)