dnarepair MMR

MMR is responsible for correction of replication errors as erroneous insertion, deletion and mis-incorporation of nucleotides that can arise during DNA replication and recombination that escape the proofreading activity of a DNA polymerase. The process is initiated by MutSalpha and MutLalpha. MutS homologs first recognize the error in DNA. One of these dimers (MSH2/MSH6) is called MutSalpha and the second (MSH2/MSH3) is called MutSbeta. The first heterodimer preferentially recognizes single base mismatches and small insertion/deletion loops (1-2 bases). The second heterodimer primarily recognizes larger loops (2-10 bases). Then physically interact with MutL, which next activates other proteins that remove the error-bearing DNA strand and synthesize the new one. Mutations in the genes coding human MutS and MutL homologs have been linked with the Lynch syndrome, with high risk of cancer.
PMID: 20478261
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