BER

MAP:DNA_REPAIR/MODULE:BER map
BER repairs single base damage by oxidation, alkylation, hydrolysis, deamination, single base adducts formation. The damaged base is removed by a DNA glycosylases (unique for BER). BER is important for removing mispairing that may lead to breaks in DNA during replication. BER is initiated by DNA glycosylases, which recognize and remove specific damaged or inappropriate bases, forming AP sites. These are then cleaved by an AP endonuclease. The resulting single-strand break can then be processed by either short-patch (where a single nucleotide is replaced) or long-patch BER (where 2-10 new nucleotides are synthesized). Steps: Base exision, AP site preparation, End processing, Gap filling, Nick sealing
PMID:22258607
PMID:22918414
PMID:23545420
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